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fransız ihtilali

FRANSIZ İHTİLALİ

 

Fransız İhtilali

Fransız İhtilali'nin Nedenleri

1756-1763'teki Yedi Yıl Savaşları'nda İngilizler ile savaşan Fransızlar'ın İngiltere'deki meşrutiyet yönteminden etkilenmesi.

Amerika Bağımsızlık Savaşı'nı destekleyen Fransızlar'ın, İnsan Hakları Bildirisi'nden etkilenmesi.

Fransa'da mutlaki krallığın uyguladığı baskı rejimi nedeniyle özgürlük ve eşitlik ortamının olmaması.

Devlet yönetiminde soyluların geniş ayrıcalıklara sahip, halkın ise kralın emirlerine körü körüne itaat eden durumunda olması.

Devlet çıkarlarına ters düşen fikirlere sahip kişilerin ağır biçimde cezalandırılması.

Rönesans'ın etkisiyle ortaya çıkan "Aydınlanma Çağı" nın, Fransız düşünürler tarafından benimsenmesi.

Fransa'nın XVIII. yüzyılda katıldığı savaşlar ve devletin gereksiz harcamalarının ekonomiyi sarsması üzerine halkın ağır vergiler altında ezilmesi.

Fransız İhtilali (1789)

1 Mayıs 1789'da Milli Meclis, kendi onayları olmadan halktan vergi toplanmaması kararını aldı.

Kral buna karşı çıktı ve Meclisi kapatmak istedi. 14 Temmuz 1789'da Paris'te ayaklanan halk Bastille Hapishanesi'ni bastı ve siyasi tutukluları serbest bıraktı.

4 Ağustos 1789'da bütün feodal haklar "Kurucu Meclis"e dönüşen "Milli Meclis" tarafından kaldırıldı.

28 Ağustos 1789'da "İnsan ve Vatandaş Hakları Bildirisi" ilan edildi.

Kurucu Meclis, Anayasa hazırlayarak demokratik krallığa geçildiğini bildirdi.

Kral XVI. Louis, başa geçmek isteyince ihtilalciler tarafından yakalanarak kraliçe Marie Antoinette ile birlikte idam edildi.

Fransa'da Robespier önderliğinde "terör dönemi" başladı.

Kurucu Meclis, 1795'teki anayasa ile Direktuvar Hükümeti'ni kurduğunu bildirdi.

1799'da Napolyon Bonaparte darbe ile başa geçti.

Napolyon, 1804'te Fransa'da imparatorluğu ilan etti.

Fransız İhtilali'nin Sonuçları


İhtilalin ardından yayımlanan "İnsan Hakları Evrensel Beyannamesi" ile ulusçuluk, demokrasi, cumhuriyet, adalet, hukuk, anayasacılık, özgürlük ve eşitlik gibi kavramlar hızla bütün dünyaya yayıldı.

Mutlak krallıklar, yerini anayasal yönetime dayanan meşruti krallıklara bıraktı.

Çok uluslu imparatorlukların dağılmasıyla ulusal devletler kurulmaya başlandı.

XVIII. yüzyılda Balkanlarda bulunan Osmanlı halkları arasında ulusçuluk düşüncesi hızla yayıldı ve uzun vadede Osmanlı Devleti parçalandı.

Fransız İhtilali ile ortaya çıkan düşünceler, Osmanlı aydınları üzerinde oldukça etkili oldu. Bu durum, Tanzimat Dönemi'nin başlamasında ve Kanun-i Esasi'nin hazırlanmasında önemli rol oynadı.


YENİ ÇAĞ TARİHİ

(1453 - 1789)

İstanbul'un Fethi
Amerika'nın Keşfi
Osmanlı Devleti'nin Duraklaması
Yeniçağda Avrupa
Coğrafi Keşifler
Rönesans Hareketleri
Reform Hareketleri
Fransız İhtilali
 
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